(I wrote this post for a class I’m taking on Flipped Learning. This post explains the Learning Culture in my classroom, and how I make decisions to support this culture.)
Why I Decided to Flip
Two years ago, I made the plunge into the “flipped learning” world. I flipped my honors chemistry classes, cold turkey, at the beginning of the 2011-2012 school year. I had stumbled across Aaron Sams & Jonathan Bergmann’s website or blog, where they shared how they’d been creating “Vodcasts” for their lectures. I was attracted to this teaching strategy because I found myself lecturing in class a lot, and students still came to class the next day saying they couldn’t complete the assigned homework practice problems. Also, I felt like I didn’t have time to do the inquiry labs that I wanted to do to help students construct their own understanding of the content and to help them develop scientific thinking and process skills.
And it changed my world! Honestly, that first year was tough – I spent a lot of my time outside of class making videos, and I struggled to figure out what to do with all the class time we had. It was Traditional Flipped Class – students spent a lot of time doing worksheets in class – mostly because I often didn’t have time to think through and change my calendars to accommodate more of those inquiry labs I wanted to do. However, my classroom culture changed immediately. Just a month into the school year, I felt like I knew all of my students better than I’d known any of my prior groups of students by the end of the semester, because I interacted with them so much more frequently. And in when working in smaller groups, I found that quieter students were much more likely to call me over and ask a question. I had more time to spend working with struggling students, and to push the students at the top of the class to try greater challenge problems. I loved being the facilitator and coach for my students, rather than the “sage on the stage”.
I had some students who were resistant to watching the videos at home, so I made a deal with them that they could work ahead, watch the videos in class on our classroom computers, and do the homework at home. That flexibility and loss of control was a BIG change for me, but I was amazed at how it reduced the homework battles between me and my students and helped them achieve more than I think they would have in a traditional classroom, because they felt like they’d “won” by having a say in their pacing. Many of those students ended up watching the video AND doing the practice in class … so they were able to have no homework.
Flipped, Round 2
This past year was my 2nd year flipping, and I made a few minor changes (re-doing some videos, increasing interactivity by posting the videos in Edmodo so students could respond with questions, asking students to make their own videos for a topic, incorporating a few new inquiry labs). I improved in my ability to monitor and assist students during class time, and I had even stronger relationships with my students as a result.
However, my focus was mostly elsewhere, as I was teaching only 1 section of my flipped class and 4 sections of a brand-new general chemistry curriculum (“Living by Chemistry”, which is a great inquiry-driven, topically-organized, learning-cycle-focused curriculum).
At least when I compared my data, it seemed promising: my 2 years of flipped students scored, on average, 1% better on unit tests and 4% better on final exams than my 3 years of non-flipped students. So it seemed to be working … or at not doing too much harm, at a minimum. Still, I had a nagging feeling that I could be using my class time in a more engaging way.
Flipped, Round 3…and beyond!
So in the upcoming year, I am planning to make a few changes that will enhance the learning culture of my flipped honors chemistry class. As I’ve reflected on what I heard at FlipCon13 and listened to some of the Flipped Learning Podcasts, I believe that Ramsey Mussallam’s “Explore-Flip-Apply” model describes my ideal classroom environment. This has been the missing piece for me, as I’ve desired to have more inquiry experiences for my students, use my face-to-face time more effectively, and developed some familiarity with using learning cycles through the “Living by Chemistry” curriculum.
I knew after FlipCon13 that I wanted to learn more about Ramsey’s ideas. So I listed to Episode 3 of the podcast, in which Ramsey explained to the host, Troy Cockrum, how he created learning cycles out of his objectives. He started by developing “explore” labs to engage students and help them construct the basic knowledge, made “flip” videos for lower-level Bloom’s taxonomy tasks (like knowledge and comprehension), and had students come back to class to practice and then apply those skills (higher levels of Bloom’s). The picture below is borrowed from his website, and explains where each of the components of Bloom’s taxonomy occurs for his students:
Ramsey also acknowledged in the podcast that this is really hard to do with some topics, and that sometimes those explore labs just flop, which encourages me to give myself some grace as I try it out this year. I think this will have the potential to help me get my classroom learning environment to where I want it to be. Hopefully this will shift my classroom to be even more student-centered, in that the videos will not be delivered to students until they’ve grappled with the material a bit, started asking questions, and felt a need for a more in-depth understanding of the content.
On the days where we are practicing and applying the content, I want to push my students to be more metacognative about their own learning. I’m not ready to do full-on mastery learning or standards based grading, but my course and assessments are already aligned around clearly-written objectives, and I will have my students reflect on their own level of mastery for those objectives (I like Dena Leggett’s categories of “Got It”, “Fuzzy”, or “I Don’t Know” from her session at FlipCon13, “Maintaining Rigor in Advanced Flipped Classrooms”), potentially through end-of-class exit slip questions or using an app like Socrative to send electronic questions to students.
Hopefully these changes will help me push my students into their zones of proximal development (Vygotsky), where they are actively engaged with the content to a degree that stretches them but does not break them!